In the study, 254 patients were randomized 2:1 to receive either REVLIMID (n=170) or single agent cytarabine, rituximab, gemcitabine, fludarabine or chlorambucil (n=84). The primary efficacy endpoint was progression free survival, defined as the time from randomization to disease progression or death due to any cause. Secondary endpoints, including health-related quality of life (QoL) were analyzed in an exploratory manner.
The primary endpoint, median PFS was significantly improved for lenalidomide vs IC (8.7 vs 5.2 months; HR=0.61, P=0.004). A pre-specified exploratory analysis was presented and examined progression-free survival (PFS) in sub-groups based on prior therapies. Results examining the selected IC treatments in the study showed that REVLIMID provided a reduction in the risk of progression or death vs. each IC treatment. Compared with lenalidomide, and taking into account the small number of patients per IC group, the risk reduction in PFS was 22% vs. rituximab (n=27), 56% vs. gemcitabine (n=20), 42% vs. fludarabine (n=18), 43% vs. chlorambucil (n=11), and 8% vs. cytarabine (n=8).
An exploratory subgroup analysis of PFS based on prior treatment-related subgroups showed statistically improved PFS in several subgroups for REVLIMID over IC, including for patients with for less than 3 years from MCL diagnosis, at least 2 prior systemic therapies or relapses, at least 6 months from last therapy, at least 230 days from last rituximab dose, prior refractory disease, no prior stem cell transplant/high-dose therapy, and prior rituximab.
Treatment group was the main effect associated with significantly better PFS by univariate Cox regression analysis (HR=0.619; P=0.004), and was highly significant in the multivariate analysis (HR=0.384; P= < 0.001). Other factors associated with significantly better PFS by both univariate and multivariate analysis were less than 3 prior systemic anti-lymphoma therapies, and at least 230 days from last prior rituximab.
Also presented was a planned secondary study endpoint of the study. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 at baseline, after cycles 2, 4, 6 and 8, and at treatment discontinuation. EORTC QLQ-C30 included five functional domains, nine symptom scales, and one global health status/QoL scale.
QoL data completion declined from 93% at screening to 51% at treatment discontinuation during the course of the study, and higher non-compliance rates were seen among IC patients. QoL was maintained (no worsening greater than 10 points) with REVLIMID from baseline through last treatment cycle for evaluated primary and secondary QoL domains. Patients treated with REVLIMID reported similar QoL vs. IC single agents across all domain/scale scores and at each follow-up visit.
A trend toward higher rates of clinically meaningful improvement in QoL was observed in REVLIMID-treated patients across most function and symptom domains/scales at one or more follow-up visits. No significant difference in the QoL was observed between the two arms in the primary endpoint of global health status. Statistically significant QoL differences (at least 10%) comparing REVLIMID vs. IC treatment arms were identified for physical function (24% vs. 8%, respectively; P=0.0025) and pain (29% vs. 18%; P=0.0471).
REVLIMID is also approved in
In addition, REVLIMID is approved in
U.S. Regulatory Information for REVLIMID®
REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) in combination with dexamethasone (dex) is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM)
REVLIMID® is indicated for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anemia due to low- or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) associated with a deletion 5q cytogenetic abnormality with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities
REVLIMID® is indicated for the treatment of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) whose disease has relapsed or progressed after two prior therapies, one of which included bortezomib
REVLIMID is not indicated and not recommended for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) outside of controlled clinical trials
Important Safety Information
WARNING: EMBRYO-FETAL TOXICITY, HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, and VENOUS and ARTERIAL THROMBOEMBOLISM
Do not use REVLIMID during pregnancy. Lenalidomide, a thalidomide analogue, caused limb abnormalities in a developmental monkey study. Thalidomide is a known human teratogen that causes severe life-threatening human birth defects. If lenalidomide is used during pregnancy, it may cause birth defects or embryo-fetal death. In females of reproductive potential, obtain 2 negative pregnancy tests before starting REVLIMID treatment. Females of reproductive potential must use 2 forms of contraception or continuously abstain from heterosexual sex during and for 4 weeks after REVLIMID treatment. To avoid embryo-fetal exposure to lenalidomide, REVLIMID is only available through a restricted distribution program, the REVLIMID REMS® program (formerly known as the "RevAssist®"program).
Information about the REVLIMID REMS® program is available at www.celgeneriskmanagement.com or by calling the manufacturer's toll-free number 1-888-423-5436.
Hematologic Toxicity (Neutropenia and Thrombocytopenia)
REVLIMID can cause significant neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Eighty percent of patients with del 5q MDS had to have a dose delay/reduction during the major study. Thirty-four percent of patients had to have a second dose delay/reduction. Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity was seen in 80% of patients enrolled in the study. Patients on therapy for del 5q MDS should have their complete blood counts monitored weekly for the first 8 weeks of therapy and at least monthly thereafter. Patients may require dose interruption and/or reduction. Patients may require use of blood product support and/or growth factors.
Venous and Arterial Thromboembolism
REVLIMID has demonstrated a significantly increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), as well as risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with MM who were treated with REVLIMID and dexamethasone therapy. Monitor for and advise patients about signs and symptoms of thromboembolism. Advise patients to seek immediate medical care if they develop symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, or arm or leg swelling. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended and the choice of regimen should be based on an assessment of the patient's underlying risks.
Pregnancy: REVLIMID can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant female and is contraindicated in females who are pregnant. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus
Allergic Reactions: REVLIMID is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity (e.g., angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis) to lenalidomide
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
REVLIMID REMS® Program
Because of embryo-fetal risk, REVLIMID is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) the REVLIMID REMS® Program (formerly known as the "RevAssist®" Program). Prescribers and pharmacies must be certified with the program and patients must sign an agreement form and comply with the requirements. Further information about the REVLIMID REMS® program is available at www.celgeneriskmanagement.com or by telephone at 1-888-423-5436
Hematologic Toxicity: REVLIMID can cause significant neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Monitor patients with neutropenia for signs of infection. Advise patients to observe for bleeding or bruising, especially with use of concomitant medications that may increase risk of bleeding. MM: Patients taking REVLIMID/dex should have their complete blood counts (CBC) assessed every 7 days for the first 2 cycles, on days 1 and 15 of cycle 3, and every 28 days thereafter. MCL: Patients taking REVLIMID for MCL should have their CBCs monitored weekly for the first cycle (28 days), every 2 weeks during cycles 2-4, and then monthly thereafter. Patients may require dose interruption and/or dose reduction. MDS: See Boxed WARNINGS
Venous and Arterial Thromboembolism: Venous thromboembolic events (DVT and PE) and arterial thromboses are increased in patients treated with REVLIMID. A significantly increased risk of DVT (7.4%) and PE (3.7%) occurred in patients with MM after at least one prior therapy, treated with REVLIMID/dex compared to placebo/dex (3.1% and 0.9%) in clinical trials with varying use of anticoagulant therapies. In NDMM study, in which nearly all patients received antithrombotic prophylaxis, DVT (3.6%) and PE (3.8%) were reported in the Rd continuous arm. Myocardial infarction (MI,1.7%) and stroke (CVA,2.3%) are increased in patients with MM after at least 1 prior therapy who were treated with REVLIMID/dex therapy compared with placebo/dex (0.6%, and 0.9%) in clinical trials. In NDMM study, MI (including acute) was reported (2.3%) in the Rd Continuous arm. Frequency of serious adverse reactions of CVA was (0.8%) in the Rd Continuous arm. Patients with known risk factors, including prior thrombosis, may be at greater risk and actions should be taken to try to minimize all modifiable factors (e.g. hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking). In controlled clinical trials that did not use concomitant thromboprophylaxis, 21.5% overall thrombotic events occurred in patients with refractory and relapsed MM who were treated with REVLIMID/dex compared to 8.3% thrombosis in the placebo/dex group. Median time to first thrombosis event was 2.8 months. In NDMM study, which nearly all patients received antithrombotic prophylaxis, overall frequency of thrombotic events was 17.4% in combined Rd continuous and Rd18 arms. Median time to first thrombosis event as 4.37 months. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended and regimen is based on patients underlying risks. ESAs and estrogens may further increase the risk of thrombosis and their use should be based on a benefit-risk decision. See Boxed WARNINGS
Increased Mortality in Patients With CLL: In a clinical trial in the first line treatment of patients with CLL, single agent REVLIMID therapy increased the risk of death as compared to single agent chlorambucil. In an interim analysis, there were 34 deaths among 210 patients on the REVLIMID treatment arm compared to 18 deaths among 211 patients in the chlorambucil treatment arm, and hazard ratio for overall survival was 1.92 [95% CI: 1.08-3.41] consistent with a 92% increase in risk of death. Serious adverse cardiovascular reactions, including atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, and cardiac failure occurred more frequently in the REVLIMID treatment arm. REVLIMID is not indicated and not recommended for use in CLL outside of controlled clinical trials
Second Primary Malignancies: In clinical trials in patients with MM receiving REVLIMID, an increase of invasive second primary malignancies notably AML and MDS have been observed. The increase of AML and MDS occurred predominantly in NDMM patients receiving REVLIMID in combination with oral melphalan (5.3%) or immediately following high dose intravenous melphalan and ASCT (up to 5.2%). The frequency of AML and MDS cases in the Revlimid/dex arms was observed to be 0.4%. Cases of B-cell malignancies (including Hodgkin's Lymphomas) were observed in clinical trials where patients received lenalidomide in the post-ASCT setting. Patients who received REVLIMID-containing therapy until disease progression did not show a higher incidence of invasive SPM than patients treated in the fixed duration REVLIMID-containing arms. Monitor patients for the development of second primary malignancies. Take into account both the potential benefit and risk of second primary malignancies when considering treatment with REVLIMID
Hepatotoxicity: Hepatic failure, including fatal cases, has occurred in patients treated with lenalidomide in combination with dex. The mechanism of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is unknown. Pre-existing viral liver disease, elevated baseline liver enzymes, and concomitant medications may be risk factors. Monitor liver enzymes periodically. Stop REVLIMID upon elevation of liver enzymes. After return to baseline values, treatment at a lower dose may be considered
Allergic Reactions: Angioedema and serious dermatologic reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been reported. These events can be fatal. Patients with a prior history of Grade 4 rash associated with thalidomide treatment should not receive REVLIMID. REVLIMID interruption or discontinuation should be considered for Grade 2-3 skin rash. REVLIMID must be discontinued for angioedema, Grade 4 rash, exfoliative or bullous rash, or if SJS or TEN is suspected and should not be resumed following discontinuation for these reactions. REVLIMID capsules contain lactose. Risk-benefit of REVLIMID treatment should be evaluated in patients with lactose intolerance
Tumor Lysis Syndrome: Fatal instances of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) have been reported during treatment with lenalidomide. The patients at risk of TLS are those with high tumor burden prior to treatment. These patients should be monitored closely and appropriate precautions taken
Tumor Flare Reaction: Tumor flare reaction (TFR) has occurred during investigational use of lenalidomide for CLL and lymphoma, and is characterized by tender lymph node swelling, low grade fever, pain and rash.
Monitoring and evaluation for TFR is recommended in patients with MCL. Tumor flare may mimic the progression of disease (PD). In patients with Grade 3 or 4 TFR, it is recommended to withhold treatment with lenalidomide until TFR resolves to ≤ Grade 1. In the MCL trial, approximately 10% of subjects experienced TFR; all reports were Grade 1 or 2 in severity. All of the events occurred in cycle 1 and one patient developed TFR again in cycle 11. Lenalidomide may be continued in patients with Grade 1 and 2 TFR without interruption or modification, at the physician's discretion. Patients with Grade 1 or 2 TFR may also be treated with corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or narcotic analgesics for management of TFR symptoms. Patients with Grade 3 or 4 TFR may be treated for management of symptoms per the guidance for treatment of Grade 1 and 2 TFR
Impaired Stem Cell Mobilization: A decrease in the number of CD34+ cells collected after treatment ( > 4 cycles) with REVLIMID has been reported. In patients who are autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) candidates, referral to a transplant center should occur early in treatment to optimize timing of the stem cell collection.
Adverse reactions reported in ≥20% of NDMM patients in
Adverse reactions reported in ≥15% of MM patients (REVLIMID/dex vs dex/placebo): fatigue (44% vs 42%), neutropenia (42% vs 6%), constipation (41% vs 21%), diarrhea (39% vs 27%), muscle cramp (33% vs 21%), anemia (31% vs 24%), pyrexia (28% vs 23%), peripheral edema (26% vs 21%), nausea (26% vs 21%), back pain (26% vs 19%), upper respiratory tract infection (25% vs 16%), dyspnea (24% vs 17%), dizziness (23% vs 17%), thrombocytopenia (22% vs 11%), rash (21% vs 9%), tremor (21% vs 7%), weight decreased (20% vs 15%), nasopharyngitis (18% vs 9%), blurred vision (17% vs 11%), anorexia (16% vs 10%), and dysgeusia (15% vs 10%)
Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Periodic monitoring of digoxin plasma levels, in accordance with clinical judgment and based on standard clinical practice in patients receiving this medication, is recommended during administration of REVLIMID. It is not known whether there is an interaction between dex and warfarin. Close monitoring of PT and INR is recommended in MM patients taking concomitant warfarin. Erythropoietic agents, or other agents, that may increase the risk of thrombosis, such as estrogen containing therapies, should be used with caution after making a benefit-risk assessment in patients receiving REVLIMID
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy: If pregnancy does occur during treatment, immediately
discontinue the drug. Under these conditions, refer patient to an
obstetrician/gynecologist experienced in reproductive toxicity for
further evaluation and counseling. Any suspected fetal exposure to
REVLIMID must be reported to the
Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether REVLIMID is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother
Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in patients below the age of 18 have not been established
Renal Impairment: Since REVLIMID is primarily excreted unchanged by the kidney, adjustments to the starting dose of REVLIMID are recommended to provide appropriate drug exposure in patients with moderate (CLcr 30-60 mL/min) or severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min) and in patients on dialysis
Please see accompanying full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNINGS.
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