Continuous REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) plus low-dose dexamethasone increased progression-free survival compared with fixed duration of Rd or melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide regardless of age, renal impairment, or depth of response
As previously reported, the study met the primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat analysis of all randomized patients (Median PFS 21.2 months MPT vs 25.5 months Rd, Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.72, p < 0.01).
In one analysis, the authors examined the impact of age (75 years or younger vs. over 75 years) on PFS and secondary endpoints. Overall, 35% of patients were over 75 years of age.
PFS and overall survival (OS) outcomes favored continuous Rd over MPT and over Rd18 in both age groups.
In addition, response rates were higher with continuous RD vs MPT and duration of response was longer in the continuous Rd arm compared to MPT in both age groups.
"These analyses continue to validate the published data for certain
older patients receiving continuous therapy with lenalidomide and
dexamethasone compared to a standard triplet regimen," said Prof.
Additionally, an analysis of patients with renal impairment (RI) was presented. In the study, 24% had normal renal function (creatinine clearance [CrCl] ≥ 80 mL/min), 44% presented with mild RI (CrCl ≥ 50 and < 80 mL/min), 23% had moderate RI (CrCl ≥ 30 and < 50 mL/min), and 9% had severe RI (CrCl < 30 mL/min). Patients requiring dialysis were excluded. The starting doses of lenalidomide (25 mg for pts with normal renal function or mild RI, 10 mg QD for moderate RI, and 15 mg every other day for severe RI) in the Rd arms and of melphalan (reduced by 50% in patients with moderate or severe RI) in the MPT arm were adjusted for patients with CrCl < 50 mL/min.
An analysis of the impact of depth of response on PFS was also presented. In patients who achieved at least a very good partial response (VGPR), median PFS was significantly longer (not reached (NR) with continuous Rd compared with Rd18 (31.0 months; HR = 0.46; P < 0.01) or MPT (34.7 months; HR = 0.55; P < 001). A benefit of continuous Rd was observed compared with Rd18 or MPT in patients who achieved a complete response (CR), where the median PFS with continuous Rd was NR vs. 45.2 months with Rd18 (HR = 0.29; P < 0.01) and 44.6 months with MPT (HR = 0.28; P < 0.01).
Safety results in the FIRST study (N Engl J Med 2014) showed that grade 3/4 adverse events that occurred in at least 8% of patients in the continuous Rd arm, Rd18 arm or MPT arm included neutropenia (28%, 26% and 45%, respectively), anemia (18%, 16% and 19%, respectively), thrombocytopenia (8%, 8% and 11%, respectively), febrile neutropenia (1%, 3% and 3%, respectively), leukopenia (5%, 6% and 10%, respectively), infection (29%, 22% and 17%, respectively), pneumonia (8%, 8% and 6%, respectively), deep-vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism (8%, 6% and 5%, respectively), asthenia (8%, 6% and 6%, respectively), fatigue (7%, 9% and 6%, respectively), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (1%, < 1% and 9%, respectively). Rates of grade 3/4 cardiac disorders for patients in the continuous Rd, Rd18 and MPT arms were 12%, 7% and 9%, respectively. The incidence of invasive second primary malignancies was 3% in patients taking continuous Rd, 6% in patients taking Rd18 and 5% in patients taking MPT. The overall incidence of solid tumors was identical in the continuous Rd and MPT arms (3%) and 5% in the Rd18 arm.
REVLIMID plus low-dose dexamethasone is not indicated for the treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in any country.
REVLIMID is approved in combination with dexamethasone for the treatment
of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior
therapy in nearly 70 countries, encompassing
REVLIMID is also approved in
In addition, REVLIMID is approved in
U.S. Regulatory Information for REVLIMID®
REVLIMID (lenalidomide) in combination with dexamethasone is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who have received at least one prior therapy
REVLIMID (lenalidomide) is indicated for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anemia due to low- or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) associated with a deletion 5q cytogenetic abnormality with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities
REVLIMID (lenalidomide) is indicated for the treatment of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) whose disease has relapsed or progressed after two prior therapies, one of which included bortezomib
REVLIMID is not indicated and not recommended for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) outside of controlled clinical trials
Important Safety Information
WARNING: EMBRYO-FETAL TOXICITY, HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, and VENOUS and ARTERIAL THROMBOEMBOLISM
Do not use REVLIMID during pregnancy. Lenalidomide, a thalidomide analogue, caused limb abnormalities in a developmental monkey study. Thalidomide is a known human teratogen that causes severe life-threatening human birth defects. If lenalidomide is used during pregnancy, it may cause birth defects or embryo-fetal death. In females of reproductive potential, obtain 2 negative pregnancy tests before starting REVLIMID treatment. Females of reproductive potential must use 2 forms of contraception or continuously abstain from heterosexual sex during and for 4 weeks after REVLIMID treatment. To avoid embryo-fetal exposure to lenalidomide, REVLIMID is only available through a restricted distribution program, the REVLIMID REMS® program (formerly known as the "RevAssist®"program).
Information about the REVLIMID REMS® program is available at www.celgeneriskmanagement.com or by calling the manufacturer's toll-free number 1-888-423-5436.
Hematologic Toxicity (Neutropenia and Thrombocytopenia)
REVLIMID can cause significant neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Eighty percent of patients with del 5q MDS had to have a dose delay/reduction during the major study. Thirty-four percent of patients had to have a second dose delay/reduction. Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity was seen in 80% of patients enrolled in the study. Patients on therapy for del 5q MDS should have their complete blood counts monitored weekly for the first 8 weeks of therapy and at least monthly thereafter. Patients may require dose interruption and/or reduction. Patients may require use of blood product support and/or growth factors.
Venous and Arterial Thromboembolism
REVLIMID has demonstrated a significantly increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), as well as risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with MM who were treated with REVLIMID and dex therapy. Monitor for and advise patients about signs and symptoms of thromboembolism. Advise patients to seek immediate medical care if they develop symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, or arm or leg swelling. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended and the choice of regimen should be based on an assessment of the patient's underlying risks.
• REVLIMID can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant female. Lenalidomide is contraindicated in females who are pregnant. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus
• REVLIMID is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity (e.g., angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis) to lenalidomide
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
REVLIMID REMS Program
Because of embryo-fetal risk, REVLIMID is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) the REVLIMID REMS Program (formerly known as the "RevAssist®" Program). Prescribers and pharmacies must be certified with the program and patients must sign an agreement form and comply with the requirements. Further information about the REVLIMID REMS program is available at www.celgeneriskmanagement.com or by telephone at 1-888-423-5436
Hematologic Toxicity: REVLIMID can cause significant neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. MM: Patients taking REVLIMID for MM should have their complete blood counts monitored every 2 weeks for the first 12 weeks and then monthly thereafter. In the pooled MM trials Grade 3 and 4 hematologic toxicities were more frequent in patients treated with the combination of REVLIMID and dex than in patients treated with dexamethasone alone. MCL: Patients taking REVLIMID for MCL should have their complete blood counts monitored weekly for the first cycle (28 days), every 2 weeks during cycles 2-4, and then monthly thereafter. In the MCL trial, Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was reported in 43% of the patients. Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia was reported in 28% of the patients. Patients may require dose interruption and/or dose reduction. See Boxed WARNINGS
Venous and Arterial Thromboembolism: A significantly increased risk of DVT (7.4%) and PE (3.7%) occurred in patients with MM treated with REVLIMID and dex compared to the placebo and dex group (3.1% and 0.9%) in clinical trials with varying use of anticoagulant therapies. Myocardial infarction (1.7%) and stroke (CVA) (2.3%) are increased in patients with MM who were treated with REVLIMID and dex therapy compared with placebo and dex (0.6%, and 0.9%) in clinical trials. Patients with known risk factors, including prior thrombosis, may be at greater risk and actions should be taken to try to minimize all modifiable factors (e.g. hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking). In controlled clinical trials that did not use concomitant thromboprophylaxis, 21.5% overall thrombotic events occurred in patients with refractory and relapsed MM who were treated with REVLIMID and dex compared to 8.3% thrombosis in the placebo and dex group. Median time to first thrombosis event was 2.7 months. ESAs and estrogens may further increase the risk of thrombosis and their use should be based on a benefit-risk decision. See Boxed WARNINGS
Increased Mortality in Patients With CLL: In a clinical trial in the first line treatment of patients with CLL, single agent REVLIMID therapy increased the risk of death as compared to single agent chlorambucil. In an interim analysis, there were 34 deaths among 210 patients on the REVLIMID treatment arm compared to 18 deaths among 211 patients in the chlorambucil treatment arm, and hazard ratio for overall survival was 1.92 [95% CI: 1.08-3.41] consistent with a 92% increase in risk of death. Serious adverse cardiovascular reactions, including atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, and cardiac failure occurred more frequently in the REVLIMID treatment arm. REVLIMID is not indicated and not recommended for use in CLL outside of controlled clinical trials
Second Primary Malignancies: Patients with MM treated with lenalidomide in studies including melphalan and stem cell transplantation had a higher incidence of second primary malignancies, particularly acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and Hodgkin lymphoma, compared to patients in the control arms who received similar therapy but did not receive lenalidomide. Monitor patients for the development of second malignancies. Take into account both the potential benefit of lenalidomide and the risk of second primary malignancies when considering treatment with lenalidomide
Hepatotoxicity: Hepatic failure, including fatal cases, has occurred in patients treated with lenalidomide in combination with dex. The mechanism of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is unknown. Pre-existing viral liver disease, elevated baseline liver enzymes, and concomitant medications may be risk factors. Monitor liver enzymes periodically. Stop REVLIMID upon elevation of liver enzymes. After return to baseline values, treatment at a lower dose may be considered
Allergic Reactions: Angioedema and serious dermatologic reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been reported. These events can be fatal. Patients with a prior history of Grade 4 rash associated with thalidomide treatment should not receive REVLIMID. REVLIMID interruption or discontinuation should be considered for Grade 2-3 skin rash. REVLIMID must be discontinued for angioedema, Grade 4 rash, exfoliative or bullous rash, or if SJS or TEN is suspected and should not be resumed following discontinuation for these reactions. REVLIMID capsules contain lactose. Risk-benefit of REVLIMID treatment should be evaluated in patients with lactose intolerance
Tumor Lysis Syndrome: Fatal instances of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) have been reported during treatment with lenalidomide. The patients at risk of TLS are those with high tumor burden prior to treatment. These patients should be monitored closely and appropriate precautions taken
Tumor Flare Reaction: Tumor flare reaction (TFR) has occurred during investigational use of lenalidomide for CLL and lymphoma, and is characterized by tender lymph node swelling, low grade fever, pain and rash. REVLIMID is not indicated and not recommended for use in CLL outside of controlled clinical trials
Monitoring and evaluation for TFR is recommended in patients with MCL. Tumor flare may mimic the progression of disease (PD). In patients with Grade 3 or 4 TFR, it is recommended to withhold treatment with lenalidomide until TFR resolves to ≤ Grade 1. In the MCL trial, approximately 10% of subjects experienced TFR; all reports were Grade 1 and 2 in severity. All of the events occurred in cycle 1 and one patient developed TFR again in cycle 11. Lenalidomide may be continued in patients with Grade 1 and 2 TFR without interruption or modification, at the physician's discretion. Patients with Grade 1 or 2 TFR may also be treated with corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or narcotic analgesics for management of TFR symptoms. Patients with Grade 3 or 4 TFR may be treated for management of symptoms per the guidance for treatment of Grade 1 and 2 TFR
Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Periodic monitoring of digoxin plasma levels, in accordance with clinical judgment and based on standard clinical practice in patients receiving this medication, is recommended during administration of REVLIMID. It is not known whether there is an interaction between dex and warfarin. Close monitoring of PT and INR is recommended in MM patients taking concomitant warfarin. Erythropoietic agents, or other agents, that may increase the risk of thrombosis, such as estrogen containing therapies, should be used with caution after making a benefit-risk assessment in patients receiving REVLIMID
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy: If pregnancy does occur during treatment, immediately
discontinue the drug. Under these conditions, refer patient to an
obstetrician/gynecologist experienced in reproductive toxicity for
further evaluation and counseling. Any suspected fetal exposure to
REVLIMID must be reported to the
Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether REVLIMID is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother
Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 18 have not been established
Geriatric Use: Since elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection. Monitor renal function
Renal Impairment: Since REVLIMID is primarily excreted unchanged by the kidney, adjustments to the starting dose of REVLIMID are recommended to provide appropriate drug exposure in patients with moderate (CLcr 30-60 mL/min) or severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min) and in patients on dialysis
Please see full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNINGS.
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similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on
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speak only as of the date they are made. We undertake no obligation to
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statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties, most of which are
difficult to predict and are generally beyond our control. Actual
results or outcomes may differ materially from those implied by the
forward-looking statements as a result of the impact of a number of
factors, many of which are discussed in more detail in our Annual Report
on Form 10-K and our other reports filed with the
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