Abstracts for the meeting were released today on the society’s Web site at https://ash.confex.com/ash/2013/webprogram/start.html and will be published in the journal Blood. The FIRST study is one of more than 160 abstracts evaluating 10 Celgene compounds across a range of blood cancers.
As reported in the FIRST study abstract, a total of 1,623 patients either ≥65 years of age or not candidates for stem cell transplant were randomized 1:1:1 into three arms: lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) in 28-day cycles until disease progression (Arm A); Rd in 28-day cycles for 72 weeks (18 cycles, Arm B); or melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide in 42-day cycles for 72 weeks (12 cycles, Arm C). Assessments by International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria were done after each cycle. Patients with renal impairment were enrolled, however, patients on dialysis were excluded. Starting doses of lenalidomide and dexamethasone were adjusted based on renal function and age, respectively. Melphalan starting dose was adjusted based on age, absolute neutrophil count, platelet count, and renal function; and thalidomide was adjusted for age. Dose adjustments were permitted for adverse events. All patients were required to receive anti-thrombotic prophylaxis. Stratification factors included age, International Stage System and country.
The primary endpoint was a comparison of progression-free survival (PFS) in Arm A vs. Arm C. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), time to response, duration of response (DOR), safety and quality of life (QOL). A preplanned additional analysis included time from randomization to second progression event or death (PFS2). The final preplanned analysis of independently adjudicated progressive disease (PD) events in Arm A vs. Arm C conducted after 960 events of death or PD, and an interim OS analysis in 64% of survival events (574/896 events) were presented in the abstract. Comparisons of PFS and all secondary endpoints, including interim OS for all three arms, will be presented at the meeting.
As of the publication of the abstract, 121 patients continue to receive lenalidomide on study (Arm A). The median age was 73 (40.0–92.0) years; 35% of patients were aged ≥75 years; and 41% of patients had ISS stage 3 disease.
After a median follow-up of 37 months, the trial met its primary endpoint (PFS), demonstrating a 28% reduction in risk of progression or death (HR=0.72; p= 0.00006). The preplanned interim analysis of OS demonstrated a 22% reduction in risk of death in favor of Arm A vs. Arm C (HR=0.78, p=0.01685); however, the pre-specified boundary (p<0.0096) was not crossed. All other secondary endpoints consistently showed improvement in favor of Arm A vs. Arm C; ORR (partial response or better) 75% vs. 62% (p < 0.00001), DOR (HR=0.63; p<0.00001), and PFS2 (HR=0.78, p=0.0051).
Relevant Grade 3/4 adverse events in Arm A vs. Arm C were neutropenia (28% vs. 45%), thrombocytopenia (8% vs. 11%), febrile neutropenia (1% vs. 3%), infection (29% vs. 17%), neuropathy (5% vs.15%), and deep-vein thrombosis (5% vs. 3%). The incidence of secondary primary malignancies (SPM) was evaluated. Hematologic malignancies were 0.4% in Arm A vs. 2.2% in Arm C; the overall incidence of solid tumors was identical (2.8%).
REVLIMID® is not indicated for newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma in any country.
REVLIMID is approved in combination with dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior therapy in nearly 70 countries, encompassing Europe, the Americas, the Middle-East and Asia, and in combination with dexamethasone for the treatment of patients whose disease has progressed after one therapy in Australia and New Zealand.
REVLIMID is also approved in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand and several Latin American countries, as well as Malaysia and Israel, for transfusion-dependent anaemia due to low- or intermediate-1-risk MDS associated with a deletion 5q cytogenetic abnormality with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities and in Europe for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anemia due to low- or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes associated with an isolated deletion 5q cytogenetic abnormality when other therapeutic options are insufficient or inadequate.
In addition, REVLIMID is approved in the United States for the treatment of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) whose disease has relapsed or progressed after two prior therapies, one of which included bortezomib.
U.S. Regulatory Information for Revlimid
REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) in combination with dexamethasone is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who have received at least one prior therapy
REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) is indicated for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anemia due to low- or intermediate-1–risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) associated with a deletion 5q cytogenetic abnormality with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities
REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) is indicated for the treatment of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) whose disease has relapsed or progressed after two prior therapies, one of which included bortezomib
REVLIMID is not indicated and not recommended for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) outside of controlled clinical trials
Important Safety Information
WARNING: EMBRYO-FETAL TOXICITY, HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, and VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM
Do not use REVLIMID during pregnancy. Lenalidomide, a thalidomide analogue, caused limb abnormalities in a developmental monkey study. Thalidomide is a known human teratogen that causes severe life-threatening human birth defects. If lenalidomide is used during pregnancy, it may cause birth defects or embryo-fetal death. In females of reproductive potential, obtain 2 negative pregnancy tests before starting REVLIMID treatment. Females of reproductive potential must use 2 forms of contraception or continuously abstain from heterosexual sex during and for 4 weeks after REVLIMID treatment. To avoid embryo-fetal exposure to lenalidomide, REVLIMID is only available through a restricted distribution program, the REVLIMID REMS™ program (formerly known as the “RevAssist®”program).
Information about the REVLIMID REMS™ Program is available at www.celgeneriskmanagement.com or by calling the manufacturer’s toll-free number 1-888-423-5436.
Hematologic Toxicity (Neutropenia and Thrombocytopenia)
REVLIMID can cause significant neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Eighty percent of patients with del 5q MDS had to have a dose delay/reduction during the major study. Thirty-four percent of patients had to have a second dose delay/reduction. Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity was seen in 80% of patients enrolled in the study. Patients on therapy for del 5q MDS should have their complete blood counts monitored weekly for the first 8 weeks of therapy and at least monthly thereafter. Patients may require dose interruption and/or reduction. Patients may require use of blood product support and/or growth factors.
REVLIMID has demonstrated a significantly increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with MM who were treated with REVLIMID and dexamethasone therapy. Patients and physicians are advised to be observant for the signs and symptoms of thromboembolism. Patients should be instructed to seek medical care if they develop symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, or arm or leg swelling. It is not known whether prophylactic anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy prescribed in conjunction with REVLIMID may lessen the potential for venous thromboembolism. The decision to take prophylactic measures should be done carefully after an assessment of an individual patient’s underlying risk factors.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
REVLIMID REMS Program
Because of embryo-fetal risk, REVLIMID is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) the REVLIMID REMS Program (formerly known as the “RevAssist®” Program). Prescribers and pharmacies must be certified with the program and patients must sign an agreement form and comply with the requirements. Further information about the REVLIMID REMS program is available at www.celgeneriskmanagement.com or by telephone at 1-888-423-5436
Hematologic Toxicity: REVLIMID can cause significant neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. MM: Patients taking REVLIMID for MM should have their complete blood counts monitored every 2 weeks for the first 12 weeks and then monthly thereafter. In the pooled MM trials Grade 3 and 4 hematologic toxicities were more frequent in patients treated with the combination of REVLIMID and dexamethasone than in patients treated with dexamethasone alone. MCL: Patients taking REVLIMID for MCL should have their complete blood counts monitored weekly for the first cycle (28 days), every 2 weeks during cycles 2-4, and then monthly thereafter. In the MCL trial, Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was reported in 43% of the patients. Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia was reported in 28% of the patients. Patients may require dose interruption and/or dose reduction
Venous Thromboembolism: Venous thromboembolic events (predominantly deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) have occurred in patients with MM treated with lenalidomide combination therapy and patients with MDS or MCL treated with lenalidomide monotherapy. It is not known whether prophylactic anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy prescribed in conjunction with REVLIMID may lessen the potential for venous thromboembolism
Increased Mortality in Patients With CLL: In a clinical trial in the first line treatment of patients with CLL, single agent REVLIMID therapy increased the risk of death by 92%. Serious adverse cardiovascular reactions, including atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, and cardiac failure occurred more frequently in the REVLIMID treatment arm. REVLIMID is not indicated and not recommended for use in CLL outside of controlled clinical trials
Second Primary Malignancies: Patients with MM treated with lenalidomide in studies including melphalan and stem cell transplantation had a higher incidence of second primary malignancies, particularly acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and Hodgkin lymphoma, compared to patients in the control arms who received similar therapy but did not receive lenalidomide. Monitor patients for the development of second malignancies. Take into account both the potential benefit of lenalidomide and the risk of second primary malignancies when considering treatment with lenalidomide
Hepatotoxicity: Hepatic failure, including fatal cases, has occurred in patients treated with lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone. The mechanism of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is unknown. Pre-existing viral liver disease, elevated baseline liver enzymes, and concomitant medications may be risk factors. Monitor liver enzymes periodically. Stop REVLIMID upon elevation of liver enzymes. After return to baseline values, treatment at a lower dose may be considered
Allergic Reactions: Angioedema and serious dermatologic reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been reported. These events can be fatal. Patients with a prior history of Grade 4 rash associated with thalidomide treatment should not receive REVLIMID. REVLIMID interruption or discontinuation should be considered for Grade 2-3 skin rash. REVLIMID must be discontinued for angioedema, Grade 4 rash, exfoliative or bullous rash, or if SJS or TEN is suspected and should not be resumed following discontinuation for these reactions. REVLIMID capsules contain lactose. Risk-benefit of REVLIMID treatment should be evaluated in patients with lactose intolerance
Tumor Lysis Syndrome: Fatal instances of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) have been reported during treatment with lenalidomide. The patients at risk of TLS are those with high tumor burden prior to treatment. These patients should be monitored closely and appropriate precautions taken
Tumor Flare Reaction: Tumor flare reaction (TFR) has occurred during investigational use of lenalidomide for CLL and lymphoma, and is characterized by tender lymph node swelling, low grade fever, pain and rash. REVLIMID is not indicated and not recommended for use in CLL outside of controlled clinical trials
Monitoring and evaluation for TFR is recommended in patients with MCL. Tumor flare may mimic the progression of disease (PD). In patients with Grade 3 or 4 TFR, it is recommended to withhold treatment with lenalidomide until TFR resolves to ≤ Grade 1. In the MCL trial, approximately 10% of subjects experienced TFR; all reports were Grade 1 or 2 in severity. All of the events occurred in cycle 1 and one patient developed TFR again in cycle 11. Lenalidomide may be continued in patients with Grade 1 and 2 TFR without interruption or modification, at the physician’s discretion. Patients with Grade 1 or 2 TFR may also be treated with corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or narcotic analgesics for management of TFR symptoms. Patients with Grade 3 or 4 TFR may be treated for management of symptoms per the guidance for treatment of Grade 1 and 2 TFR
Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Periodic monitoring of digoxin plasma levels, in accordance with clinical judgment and based on standard clinical practice in patients receiving this medication, is recommended during administration of REVLIMID. It is not known whether there is an interaction between dexamethasone and warfarin. Close monitoring of PT and INR is recommended in MM patients taking concomitant warfarin. Erythropoietic agents, or other agents, that may increase the risk of thrombosis, such as estrogen containing therapies, should be used with caution in MM patients receiving lenalidomide with dexamethasone
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy: If pregnancy does occur during treatment, immediately discontinue the drug. Under these conditions, refer patient to an obstetrician/gynecologist experienced in reproductive toxicity for further evaluation and counseling. Any suspected fetal exposure to REVLIMID must be reported to the FDA via the MedWatch program at 1-800-332-1088 and also to Celgene Corporation at 1-888-423-5436
Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether REVLIMID is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother
Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 18 have not been established
Geriatric Use: Since elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection. Monitor renal function
Renal Impairment: Since REVLIMID is primarily excreted unchanged by the kidney, adjustments to the starting dose of REVLIMID are recommended to provide appropriate drug exposure in patients with moderate (CLcr 30-60 mL/min) or severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min) and in patients on dialysis
Please see full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNINGS, CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS.
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