The OPTIMISMM study is the first Phase 3 Study to report findings for a triplet combination regimen in which 100% of patients have received prior lenalidomide therapy
OPTIMISMM evaluated the efficacy and safety of POMALYST/IMNOVID (pomalidomide) plus bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone (PVd) versus bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with early RRMM (1-3 prior lines of therapy). It is the only phase III trial to report results with a triplet combination in patients who have all received prior lenalidomide therapy. With lenalidomide becoming a standard of care, this represents a patient population for which there is a growing unmet medical need.
An analysis of the results found that the treatment with PVd resulted in significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and an earlier, deeper, more durable response in these patients compared to Vd treatment. The study, which included a high percentage of patients refractory to lenalidomide (71% in the PVd arm, 69% in the Vd arm), met its primary endpoint of PFS. Those receiving PVd achieved a statistically significant longer PFS than those in the Vd treatment arm (11.20 months vs. 7.10 months, respectively [P= < .0001, HR 0.61; 95% CI: (0.49-0.77)]), reducing the risk of disease progression or death by 39% in the PVd arm. The PFS benefit was observed in the following subgroups of patients: LEN-refractory, LEN-nonrefractory, prior PI exposure or high-risk cytogenetics. Overall response rate (ORR), one of the study's secondary endpoints, was also significantly higher in the PVd treatment arm, compared to those receiving Vd (82.2% vs. 50.0%, p < 0.001). Additionally, time to treatment response was shorter in the PVd arm (0.9 months PVd vs. 1.4 months Vd), complete response was higher in the PVd arm (15.7% PVd vs. 4.0% Vd) and those receiving PVd experienced a longer duration of response than those in the Vd arm (13.7 months PVd vs. 10.9 months Vd.)
In an exploratory sub-group analysis, patients who had received one prior line of therapy reported longer PFS (20.73 months in PVd arm (n=40) vs. 11.63 months in Vd arm (n=41)) and ORR (90.1% in PVd arm vs. 54.8% in Vd arm) with a 46% reduction in the risk of disease progression or death in the PVd treatment arm compared with Vd. Other secondary endpoints included overall survival and safety.
"In the early relapse setting, there remains a need for a deeper understanding of potential treatment options, and in particular for patients who have received prior lenalidomide-based therapy. These are the first phase III clinical findings to report a significant and clinically meaningful progression-free survival improvement in patients who have previously received lenalidomide, a majority of whom are lenalidomide refractory," said
The most common Grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) were neutropenia (PVd: 42% vs. Vd: 9%), infections (PVd: 31% vs. Vd: 18%) and thrombocytopenia (PVd: 27% vs. Vd: 29%.) Rates of grade 3 or 4 deep vein thrombosis in the PVd vs. Vd arms were 0.7% vs. 0.4% and rates of grade 3 or 4 pulmonary embolism in PVd vs. Vd were 4.0% vs. 0.4%. No events were fatal. SPMs occurred in 3.2% (2.7 per 100 person years) of patients treated with PVd and 1.5% (1.2 per 100 person years) of patients treated with Vd. The most common reason for treatment discontinuation was progressive disease.
"The results of the OPTIMISMM trial continue to bolster the growing body of research into combination regimens based on the foundation of our IMiD® therapies," said
Pomalyst plus dexamethasone in combination with bortezomib is not approved in any country for any use.
OPTIMISMM is the first phase III trial to compare the efficacy and safety of PVd vs. Vd as an early line of therapy in patients with RRMM (with 1-3 prior lines of therapy) and prior lenalidomide (LEN) exposure, including LEN-refractory patients. The study was a multi-center, international, open-label, randomized phase III clinical trial to compare the efficacy and safety of a POMALYST (lenalidomide), bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone (PVd) treatment regimen to a bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone (Vd) treatment regimen in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.
This global study evaluated 559 patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had received up to three prior lines of therapy, including two or more cycles of lenalidomide treatment, who had an ECOG score of PS ≤ 2. Prior treatment with bortezomib was allowed, except for patients whose disease progressed while on a regimen containing bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 twice weekly dosing. Patients were stratified based on age (≤ 75 years old vs > 75 years old), number of prior antimyeloma regimens (1 vs. > 1), and β2-microglobulin levels ( < 3.5 mg/L vs ≥ 3.5 to ≤ 5.5 mg/L vs > 5.5 mg/L) at screening. The median age of the patients was 67 years in the PVd group and 68 years in the Vd group.
Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive PVd or Vd. In 21-day cycles, patients received POMALYST 4 mg/d on days 1-14 (PVd arm only); bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 of cycles 1-8 and on days 1 and 8 of cycles 9 and beyond; and dexamethasone 20 mg/d (10 mg if aged > 75 years) on the days of and after receiving bortezomib treatment.
POMALYST® (pomalidomide) is a thalidomide analogue indicated, in combination with dexamethasone, for patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least two prior therapies including lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor and have demonstrated disease progression on or within 60 days of completion of the last therapy.
Important Safety Information
WARNING: EMBRYO-FETAL TOXICITY and VENOUS AND ARTERIAL THROMBOEMBOLISM
POMALYST is only available through a restricted distribution program called POMALYST REMS®.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
The most common adverse reactions for POMALYST (≥30%) included fatigue and asthenia, neutropenia, anemia, constipation, nausea, diarrhea, dyspnea, upper-respiratory tract infections, back pain, and pyrexia.
In the phase III trial, nearly all patients treated with POMALYST + low-dose dex experienced at least one adverse reaction (99%). Adverse reactions (≥15% in the POMALYST + low-dose dex arm and ≥2% higher than control) included neutropenia (51.3%), fatigue and asthenia (46.7%), upper respiratory tract infection (31%), thrombocytopenia (29.7%), pyrexia (26.7%), dyspnea (25.3%), diarrhea (22%), constipation (21.7%), back pain (19.7%), cough (20%), pneumonia (19.3%), bone pain (18%), edema peripheral (17.3%), peripheral neuropathy (17.3%), muscle spasms (15.3%), and nausea (15%). Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions (≥15% in the POMALYST + low-dose dex arm and ≥1% higher than control) included neutropenia (48.3%), thrombocytopenia (22%), and pneumonia (15.7%).
Avoid concomitant use of POMALYST with strong inhibitors of CYP1A2. Consider alternative treatments. If a strong CYP1A2 inhibitor must be used, reduce POMALYST dose by 50%.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Please see full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNINGS.
About Celgene's Immunomodulatory Drugs
Immunomodulatory Drugs (IMiDs®) are Celgene's proprietary small molecule, orally available compounds for the treatment of some blood cancers. IMiD agents are hypothesized to have multiple mechanisms of action. They have been found to increase activation and proliferation of T cells, and proliferation of the IL-2 protein and activity of CD8+ effector T cells. IMiD agents have also been found to affect the stimulation and expression of natural killer (NK) cells, working within the environment of the cell to stimulate the immune system to attack the cancer cells, as well as attack the cancer cells directly. In addition to immunomodulatory properties, IMiD agents are hypothesized to have tumoricidal and antiangiogenic activity. Celgene's portfolio of IMiD agents have become a foundation of multiple myeloma research, with a growing number of studies exploring these compounds as combination partners across a range of settings of the disease.
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